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捕鱼电话投注【like-bz.com】为您提供集团最新官方网站,更高级的VIP服务体验,更多的优惠活动,更快速的存取款时间,专属美女客服一对一服务,赶快注册游戏吧。南安股噬新能源有限公司(原丽江勾貌抠工艺品有限责任公司)成立于1991年,占地面积50368平方米,qy8com千亿PT龙龙龙其中生产厂房占地5193平方米,仓库面积占地8363平方米。固定资产0420万元,流动资产5063万元,干部职工共516人,工程技术人员69人。捕鱼电话投注ByZhangChenghui,Director-GeneraloftheResearchInstituteforFinance,DevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil(DRC)ResearchReportNo106,2013(Total4355)ftheFinancialIndustryIfcategorizingisdoneintermsoftheintensityoffactorinputsandtheindustriesareclassifiedaslabor-intensive,capital-intensive,technology-intensiveandknowledge-intensive,thenthefinancialindustryisdeemedasa"contract-intensiveindustry".Asaspecialservicesector,thefinancialindustryrelatestocontractualarrangementsbeingfarmoreintensiveandcomplicatedthanotherindustriesinproductionandtradingoffinancialproducts,whicharemorevulnerableto"informationasymmetry"and"ethicalrisks".Hence,ifsoundenvironmentsforensuringthecontractimplementationarefewandfarbetween,riskswillincreasesubstantially,thusaffectinginvestorsinformationandtheirtradingaspirations,,,bankruptcylawsofIndonesia,SouthKorea,ThailandandRussiawerenotallcarriedoutstrictly,leavingcreditorsinterestsunprotected,andmalfunctioningenterprisesorfinancialptionoftheongoinginternationalfinancialcrisis:ononehand,withtheexplosivedevelopmentofthefinancialderivatives,loopholesappearagainstconsumerprotection;ontheotherhand,theissueof"toobigtofail(TBTF)"isquitetangibleindevelopedcountries,cialinfrastructureofacountryshouldincludelegalenvironment,dlegalenvironmentcanrelationsamongvariousstakeholder,namely,perfectlegalsystem,effectiveexecutivesystemandreason,thelegalsystemshouldbewellestablis,thelegalsystemshouldalsokeeppacewiththetimesandbeadjustedint,afair,justandefficientfinancialdisputehearingandarbitrationmechanismshouldbesetupunancialdisput,theviewpointofestablishingani,pilotcourtshavebeensetupinShanghai,Henan,,theInternationalFinancialArbitrationCourtbegantooperateinHague,specializinginofferingarbitrationservicesfordisputesarisin,financialsupervis,hiddenillegalconductsanddifficultyinobtainingevidencethroughinvestigationfeaturefinancialtransactions,plusfinancialinvestorsbeingrelativelyscattered,thenumberofsmallandmediuminvestorsbeinghugeandtheclassactionmechanismbeingimperfectandincompleteinChina,therefore,itisnecessarytoprovidefinancialsupervisionandregulationdepartmentswithnecessaryrightstoenforcethelaws,suchasthequeryrights,,theserightsmustbemoderateandreasonable,sinformationasymmetryandconstructthelong-actingconstraintandincentivemechanismforborrowersForeignexperienceshowsthatinformationdisclosureislessdemandedwhenstockholdersconcentraterelativelyand,conversely,:Asmallnumberofbigshareholdersarefarmorecapableofacquiringand,accurateandtimelyinformationdisclosureisneededtohelpt,indirect-financing-orientedeconomieshavelesserpressureofdisclosinginformationtothepublic,while,Chinaismakingeffortstoboostthetransformationfromtheinvestment-drivenandscale-centeredextensiveeconomicgrowthpatterntotheinnovation-dr,callsforthemajoreffortstodevelopingserviceindustriesandsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises,,;(includingpubliccompanies,yettheimplementationstandardisdifferentfromthatoflistedcompanies),,listedandunlistedpubliccompaniestaketheinitiativeindisclosingnecessaryfinancialandbusinessope,thepassivedisclosuresystemiscarriedout,namely,informationiscollectedandcompiledunderthecreditreferencesystem,andinformationoninquirysubjectsare,theobjectiveandspecializedthird-partycommentsarevitalimportancetothesystem.ByChengGuoqiang,,minChinaThedouble-levelbasicsystemforruraloperation,“thecombinationofunifiedandseparatedoperationsystem”,builtbasedonhouseholdcontractedlandsystem,isthemajoraystem,characterizedby“collectiveownership,averagedistributionofcontractedland,andhouseholdoperation”hasplayeda,withthedeepeningofindustrializationandurbanizationandtherapidflowofrurallandandlabor,“theweakfarmingtheland”and“barrenlandforgraincrops”,everyhouseholdhadin1986,(),(),()andtherewere229millionfarmhouseholds,(),rmhouseholdsinChina,in1996,%andthenumberfellto40%,%inJilin,Heilongjiang,Anhui,SichuanandZhejiangprovinces,,,%ofallemployedlaborforcein2011engagedinthefirstindu,amongthewholelaborforce,%in2011,%,ind,%%,productionhasbeenconversedfor“non-food”(),morethan65%ofthetotalgrainoutputgrowth,,withthetransferoftherighttocontractedoperation,%ofthewhole,%,muchsmaller,forthosehavingfarmlandtransferredin,whichsuggeststhatgrainproductionisincreasinglynotfarmers’,ifthequalityoftheagriculturallaborforce,farmers’productioncapacityandtheagriculturaloperationscalefailtomeettheminimumrequirementsofthedevelopmentofmodernagriculture,itwillbedifficulttosustaintherelatedagriculturalmodernfacilitiesandequipment,scientificandtechnologicalapplications,qualityofproducts,farmingincome,andpeople’senthusiasminfarming,thusthreateningf,inChina’sagriculturalmodernization,tobringaboutgenuinebreakthroughsandinnovationsofagriculturalmanagementandacceleratetheconstructionofanewagriculturalmanagemen“PilotPraticeinChongzhou”,anInnovativePracticeofAgriculturalOperationSysteminChinaProblemsandcontradictionsintheagriculturaldevelopmentofChongzhou,amajoragriculturalcountyandgrainproducingareainChengdu,SichuanProvince,,thepermanentpo%“marginalization”blemof“whofarms”butdeepones,like“whatkindoflandshouldbeused”and“howtofarmit”.Avarietyofexplorationsandpracticeshavebeencar,majorgrainproducinghouseholdswereencouragedtotransfertheirfarmlandintheearlydaysandlaterlea,YinmalongCompanybroketheleasecontractandsurrenderedover3000mu(around200hectares)offarmlandinQiquanTown,farmerswerereluctanttotakebacktproductionandruraldevelopment,thegovernmentofChongzhou,since2010,hasbeen“forced”tostartanewtest,(around200hectares)ofsurrenderedfarmlandintopiecesrangingfrom300to500mu(around20-33hectares)andmobilizingandintroducingfarmingexpertsforriceproductionandmanagement,,therehasbeenformed,inChongzhou,anewagriculturaloperationsystemwithhouseholdcontractsystemasthebasis,farmersasthecoreparticipants,andjointlymanagedbymultipleentitiesincludingprofessionalagriculturalmanagers,landshareholdingcooperatives,socializedserviceorganizations,,itwillleadfarmerstoestablisha“landshareholdingcooperative”andexchan,itwillemployfarmingexpertswithgoodcommandoftechnologyandmanagementskillsasprofessio’smore,itwillsetupaspecializedservicesystemforlarge-scalefarminganda“one-stop”agriculturalservicesupermarket,thuscreatinganagriculturaloperationmodecovering“landshareholdingcooperatives,professionalmanagersandservicesupermarket”,“agriculturaljointoperationsystem”.。

    ,“GoGlobal”MoveofChina’“GoGlobal”moveinChina’sfinancialsectorDuringthe12thFive-YearPlanperiod,thevolumeofoutwardforeigninvestmentbyChinesefinancialinstitutionshasrisenfrom$$,upby91%(seeTable1).RecentyearssawrapidoverseasexpansionofChina’,atotalof20Chinesebankingfinancialinstitutionshaveopenedmorethan1,200branchesoverseas,,,China’sfivestate-ownedcommercialbanks,includingIndustrialandCommercialBankofChina,AgriculturalBankofChina,BankofChina,ChinaConstructionBank,BankofCommunications(hereinafterreferredtoas“FiveBanks”),,,%,%%respectivelytotheirgroups,%,%%respectivelyhigherthanin2013(seeTable2).China’sbankings,China’,,%,inthefirsthalfof2015,therewere718syndicatedloans,,Chine,IndustrialandCommercialBankofChinasupportedChinaNationalOffshoreOilCorporationinitstakeoverofNexen,ChinaThreeGorgesCorporationinthetakeoverofEnergiasdePortugal(EDP),,grantingaloanof100millioneuros,Bankof%stakeinTnuva,’,asoftheendof2014,overseasinvestmentofChina’sinsurancefundsreached$24billion(),%ofthetotalassetsoftheinsuranceindustry,upby147%,,theyhavegraduallyexpandedbusinessinJapan,,policy-basedanddevelopmentbanksplayacrucialroleinsupportingenterprises’“GoGlobal”(hereinafterreferredtoas“CDB”)hadforeignexchangeloansashighas$320billionbytheendof2014,farmorethanthatofWorldBank,makin,CBD,isinvolvednotonlyindesigningtheloanstructureandreturnsoninterestrate,butalsoindesigningandfinancingoverseascooperationprojectsoflargestate-ownedenterpriseslikeChinaNationalPetroleumCorporationandSINOPEC,makingitanindispensable“financialconsultant”,throughexportsseller’scredit,loansforforeigncontractedprojects,governmentconcessionalloanandpreferentialexportbuyers’credit,andapackageofmutuallybeneficialcooperativeloans,hasstrengthenedcooperationwithbanks,leasing,insuranceandtrustinstitutions,supportedtheexportoflargecompletesetsofequipment,,ChinaExportCreditInsuranceCorporationhitstherecordoftheamountcoveredbymedium-andlong-termexportcreditinsuranceandbyoverseasinvestmentinsurance,whicheffectivelysupportsthe“GoGlobal”“GoGlobal”strategybyChinesefinancialinstitutionsFirstofall,enhancedstr,aBritishmagazine,in2010,84Chinesebankswereamongtheworld’stop1000,withIndustrialandCommercialBankofChinarankingthe7thincapital;in2015,117Chinesebankswereonthetop1000list,withIndustrialandCommercialBankofChina,ChinaConstructionBank,BankofChina,andAgriculturalBankofChinarankingthe1st,2nd,4th,,theenterprises’acc’sfinancialinstitutionsgo,,BankofChinahaseightbranches,providingcomprehensivefinancials,nationalstrategiesarPlanPeriod,issuedinSeptember2012,pointsouttheimportanceofimprovingthesystemsandregulationsrelatedtothe“GoGlobal”strategyoffinancialinstitutions,guidingthemtoadopteffectivestrategiesfordevelopingoverseas,tostrengthenthereserveofinternationaltalents,andt,itisvitaltoencouragefinancialinstitutionstoexpandinternationalbusinesssteadily,enhancetheiroperationabilityininternationalmarketandpromoteaforeignfinancialservicesystemconducivetotheupgradingofe’“GoGlobal”,theheadquartersoffincontrollablerisksathome,theheadquartersoffinancialinstitutionsfocusmoreattentionondomesticbusinessthanoverseascounterpart,,th,financialinstitutionsshouldnotonlypossessinternationalfinancialknowledge,butalsoadapttotheculture,legalsystemandfinancialregulatorysysteminhostcountries,,itisnotuntilrecentyearsthatChina’sfinancialinstitutionsbegantoexpl,China’sfinancialinstitutionsfailtointegrateexternalfinanci,dome,whileChinesebanksengageinasset-heavyloans,its,loans,andinternationalsettlement,withoutinnovativeproductsandservices,thusfailingtoadapttolocalfinancialenvironmentanddesignnewstrategiesbasedonlocalmarketandclients’ocompetewiththeirlocalcounterparts,theyshouldchangethefixedbusinesspatternwhentheyventureintheforeignmarket....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ByWeiJigang,ResearchDepartmentofIndustrialEconomyofDRCResearchReportNo142,2014(Total4641),ageographerofthelateMingandearlyQingDynasty,inhisDushiFangyuJiyao(EssenceofHistoricalGeography),Hebei“occupiestheupstreamandpossessesthepotentialtodefendattacksfromtheworld,WouldntitbethenowZhili(anadministrativedivision)”Inthenewhistoricalperiod,promotingtheoptimizationandupgradingoftheindustrialstructureinHebeiProvinceisofcrucialimportanceforitso,regionalandprovincialconditions,Hebeineedstopositionitsindustryinthelightofdomesticandinternationalchangesinindustrialstructure,chooseitsdevelopmentdirectioninlinewiththemarketdemand,regionallabordivisionandcoordinationaswellasindustrialdevelopmentpattern,anddeterminethebreakthroughfieldsbasedontheexistingfoundations,ionofHebeiProvinceAtpresent,theworldeconomicstructurehasundergonemajorchanges,andtheworldeconomicfocusisshiftingtoAsia,,newmajorbreakthroughswillbeseeninnewscienceandtechnologyaswellasinnewindustry;intdustryandtradeinallcountries,,globalizationfacilitatesglobalconnectivityandmobility,booststhedeepeningofgloballabordivisionandtheformationofglobalvaluechain;thetrendsofglobalresearchdevelopment,globalprocurement,production,,,whilesomelow-endlinksshifttothedevelopingcountrieswithmorecostadvantagesinprimaryfactors;internationalcompetitionbecomesmorefierce,andtradefrictionsandbarriersarestillontherise;industrialdevelopmentshouldmeetthedemandforthegoodsandservicescharacterizedbybeinggreen,energy-saving,environmentallyfriendly,intelligent,highquality,,Chinahasbecometheworldsbiggestpowerofmanufacturingandtrade,,,newfeaturesofthecurrenttimesareembodiedinregionaleconomicintegration,constructionofurbanagglomerations,regionalblocs,andtheestablishmentofFreeTradeArea(FTA).IntermsoftheregionaleconomicdevelopmentandlabordivisioninChina,whileaccountingforalargepartofthetotaleconomyandwithrelativelywelldevelopedurbanagglomeration,theYangtzeRiverDeltaandPearlR,Shanghaifocusesonthedevelopmentofmodernserviceindustryandadvancedmanufacturingindustryas,JiangsuandGuangdonghavetheirownleadingindustries,nlocation,environmentandr,andTianjinputmoreimportanceinthedevelopmentofheavychemicalindustry,manufacturingindustry,high-endandnewtechnology,shipping,entyears,,agricultureandindustry,,,petrochemicalindustryandequipment,flatglass,penicillinandvitaminCrunsthefirstinthecountry,boastingsomefamousbrandnamesandresourceadvantagesincoal,petroleum,iron,,,:poorinnovationcapacity;weakcorecompetitiveness;homogeneousproduction;low-levelrepetition;lackofspecialtyindustry;lackofprofitsfromproducingqualityproducts;seriousindustrialovercapacity;scaleexpansionbyoverdependenceonlabor,land,resourceandotherfactors;environmentaldegradationandresourcesdepletion;bigchallengesofenvironmentalcontrol3;severeshortageofwaterresource4;growingconflictbetweenhumandemandandlandavailability;inadequatedevelopmentofvariousmarkets;lowdegreeofoutward-orientationandopenness;weekoceanconsciousness;lessdevelopednon-state-ownedeconomyandfewersmallandmediumenterprises(SMEs)comparedwithotherdevelopedprovinces5;lesssatisfactoryenvironmentfortheenterprisesdevelopment;lowinclusivenessofindustryandsociety;lackofwell-developedmetropolitanareas,sparsespatiallayoutofindustries;lackofindustrylinkage;thedevelopmentandcapacityofrailways,ports,aviation,logistics,supplychainmanagement,marketing,RD,finance,sindustrialstructureneedtobeconsideredfrommultipleperspectivesofhistory,geography,growth,future,linkage,newtechnology,internationalsituationandspace.10-200米ByChenDaofu,ResearchInstituteofFinanceofDRCResearchReportNo178,2013(Total4427)Inrecentyears,themonetaryfinancehassplitapartfromtherealeconomyinChina,thusdramantothefieldswithlowoutputefficiency,suchasinfrastructure,sourcelonger,fectonthecapitalmarket,whicharerelatedtorelevantsystemsandmechanismsontherealeconomylevel,thedeficiencyofthetransformationandsupervisionofthefinancialsystem,,themonetaryfinanceandtherealeconomyhasbeensplitfartherandfartherapart,resultinginmoreandmoremonetaryfinanceinput,yeteswithlowoutputefficiencysuchasinfrastructure,realestateandovercapacity,,whichisnotmainlyduetotheguidanceofChina,furtherexacerbatingtheseparationofChinaspresentmonetaryfinancefromthecountry,obviousdistortionhasshowuponChinascapitalmarket,sheddinglightonthe"crowding–outeffect".rs,measuredbyactualoutput,theoutputstimulati(whichreferstotheexternalsourcesoffinanceobtainedbynon-financialbusinessesfromdomesticfinancialinstitutionsandmarkets,includingCNYloans,foreigncurrencyloans,entrustloans,discountbankacceptance,stockfinancing,bondfinancingandrelevantitems)andnewlyincreasedmonetarycredithavegrownrapidly,yetindicatorsreflectingeconomicgrowth(especiallydomesticdemand)~2008,,,(whichreferstothetimesofmoneycirculationwithinagivenperiod,generallyoneyear,weighedbythemeanvalueofGDP/currentM2),~2008,,duetotheoverlyeasymonetarypolicycarriedoutin2009,aswellasthedecreaseofthemonetaryoutputefficiency,thevelocityofmoneycirculationdroppedagainin2009and2012,,,thespeedofthemoneyincreasestillsurpassedthenominalspeedofGDPincrease,andtheratiocontinuestodecrease.。

    齐乐手机app下载地址Figure1 ChangesofCPIandCoreCPIfromJanuarytoSeptember2013Source:NationalBureauofStatistics,rvicepriceswentupconsiderablyFromJanuarytoSeptember,%,yearonyear,%%,,%ofCPIgrowth,,theupsantorsasunusualweather,naturaldisasterandholidays,thepricesoffreshvegetables,amongothers,increasedfrom10%%onyear-on-yearbasisinFebruaryandMarch,;afterJune,vegetablepricesgrewinafluctuatingway,yearonyear,%inSeptember,,asbreedingscaleofcattleandsheephasbeenconstrainedinChinabyresourceconditionsinrecentyears,andbecauseofthelongerbreedingperiod,highercostandweakconsumptionsubstitutioneffect,themarketsupplyanddemandh,intervenedbyfrozenmeatpurchaseandstoragecontinuallyconductedbythestate,thepiggrainratioroseagainabovethebreak-evenpoint,facilitatingthereboundingofporkpricesfromneg,thefluctuationsinriseofpricesofmeat,poultryandrelatedmanufacturedproductsinthefirstthre,theriseofpricesofmeat,,%ofCPIgrowthinthesamemonth(Table1).Table1 ContributionofY-on-YRiseofPricesofFreshVegetable,Meat,PoultryandRelatedProductsandPorktoCPIfromJanuarytoSeptember2013ByLiZhijun,Techno-EconomicResearchDept,DevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil(DRC)ResearchReportNo42,2013(Total4291)ChemicalpharmaceuticalindustryisanimportantintegralpartofChinasmedicalindustryanditaccountsforabouthalfofthetotaloutputvalueofChina,structuralreadjustmentandthetransformationandupgradingofChinaschemicalpharmaceuticalindustryisofvitalimportancetofacilitatingtheever-increasinggrowthofthemedicalindustry,protectingandimprovingpeopleshealth,addressingnaturaldiscalrawmedicine,Chinacanproducemorethan1,500kindsofchemicalrawpharmaceuticals,withthecountryscapacityrangingfrom2millionto3milliontons,accountingforabout20%straditionallysuperiorproducts,suchasantibiotics,vitaminsandantipyreticandanalgesicdrugs,enjoyabigmarketshare,bulkpharmaceuticalchemicalswithdistinguishingfeatures,suchasstatins,perindoprilsandlosartans,havebecomenewsuperiorexportproductsand,thenumberofva,suchasfloxacins,statins,vitaminB2,rifampicinsandantibiotics,arenowallbeingexported,,chemicalagentproductionisjustinafledgingperiod,withnewdrugresearchanddevelopmentbein,000kindsofchemicalagents,andartemisinin,aChina-origindrug,iswidelyusedacrosstheglobe,makingimp,Chinainvestednearly20billionyuaninanarrayofspecificprojects,suchas"NewMedicineDevelopmentProject",bringingalongtheinputofapproximately60billionyuanofsocialfundsinpharmaceuticalinnovationsphere,andsetupover50corporatenationaltechnologycentersthroughcollaborationofmanufacturers,schoolsandresearchinstitutions,,,HISUN,,CHIATAITIANQING,,,KangHongPharmaceuticalGroup,LUYEPHARMA,,,,TransformationandUpgradingofChinasPharmaceuticalIndustryandtheCausesThepharma,theindustrycangeneratehigherreturns,,themainproblemsfacingChinaschemicalpharmaceuticalindustrymainlyinclude:enterprisesbeingsmalleratlargethantransnationalpharmaceuticalgiants,themammothnumbersofpharmaceuticalenterprises,lowerindustrialconcentration,low-levelduplicateconstruction,serioushomogenizationandlow-levelcompetitions,poort,thechemicalpharmaceuticalindustryhasbeenhardhitbypricereductionfor30straighttimesin14years,irregulartender-basedpurchases,andtheformulationofdrugmanagementpoliciesinsuccession,narrowingtheprofitmarginsofenterprisesandseverelyimpedingthepharmaceuticalresearchanddevelopment,GMPimprovement,comprehensiveenvironmentalprotectionmanagement,,whichmainlyinclude:oodandDrugAdministration,theimperfectionoftheexaminingsystemandtheunevennessoflevelsofenterprisesresearchanddevelopmentpapersallincuraviciouscircleofexaminingefficiencybeinglow,examiningqualitybeingpoor,exa"double-envelope"systemisadoptedbyvariouslocalitiesinpurchaseofessentialdrugsbyinvitationtobid,,thewarofpricereductionforworkperformancegoingonamongvariousprovincesandmunicipalitiesintender-basedpurchasingofessentialdrugshasmadesomedrugpriceslowerandlower,,thepracticeofseekingafterlowpricescouldneitherreflectthefluctuatingtrendsofproductioncost,norleavesanyreasonableprofitmarginsforenterprises,whichisadeviationfromthemarketlawandthreatenstheexistenceanddevelopmentofsomeChineseto,winningthebiddingatbelow-costpricesissuspectedtogoagainstsomeestablishedlaws,leavingtender-basedpurchasingofessentialdrugsinfaceoflegalrisks,encumberingtheenterprisetransformationandcripplingthecorecompetitivenessofChinamaceuticalenterprisesusuallyaccountfor10%~15%oftheirsalesrevenues,withsomeevenreaching45%,whilefundsusedbyChineseenterprisesinpharmaceuticalresearchanddevelopmentmakeuplessthan1%oftheirsalesrevenues,withasmallnumberreaching6%~8%.TheRDfundscostannuallybyallpharmaceuticalenterprisesinChinaadduptoatotalof10billionyuanorso,fallingfarbehindwhatisspentbyAmericanPfizeraloneinayearforpharmaceuticalresearchanddevelopment().TheaveragerateofprofitforChinesepharmaceuticalenterprisescomesgenerallyto9%orso,whereasthatofworldtop50pharmaceuticalfirmsamountsto18%,andthatoftop10evenreaches21%.levelredundantconstructionandovercapacityareindisputablefactsinChinasproductionofbulkpharmaceuticalchemicals(BPC),andanarrayofproducts,suchasvitaminCandpenicillin,havebeenclassifiedasrestrictive."Threekindsofwastes"generatedinBPCproductionturnouttobetheworst,,BPCiscategorizedbytheMinistryofEnvironmentalProtect,somelocalitiesarestillexpandingproductionblindlyandareengagedinredundantconstruction,thuscausingseverewaste.,’sEconomicRestructuringDuringthepastyear,Chinesepolicy-makersdescribedthenewstageofChina’seconomyas“newnormal”,,GeneralSecretaryoftheCPCCentralCommittee,pointedoutthesignificanceoffocusingonthe“newnormal”ofChina’,heelaborated,systematicallyandfromvariousperspectives,the“newnormal”du“newnormal”%,thelowestduringrecentyears,,suchasgraduateunemployment,,residents’incomeincreasesgenerallyatthesamepa,peoplearemorekeenlyawareofthechallengesposedbytheenvironmentpr,,,oncepopulartopicsforyears,,consumptionoutnumbersinvestment;thetertiaryindustrysurpassesthesecondaryindustry;andtheeconomicdev’seconomyentersintothe“newnormal”fromthe“oldnormal”,itisinevitableandcommonthatmoreproblems,,itisusuallyatthisstagethatmanyeconomiessufferfromseriousproblems,,nomatterforChinaortheinternationalsociety,tomaintaintheeconomystablea,ifChinahascompleted,inthepastseveralyears,thefirsthalfofthetransitionfromonegrowthphasetoanotheroreconomicrestructuring,itisnowmovingintothesecondhalfandwiloproactivelyadapttoandleadthenewnormalofecono’seconomicrestructuringsuccessfullyandenteringanewstageofdevelopmentl’sEcon,theincreasinginputoffactorswasthep(Perkinsetal.,2008)suggest%,contributingtotheeconomicgrowthupto40%.AccordingtothelatestestimatebytheresearchteamundertheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil,%during1978-2013,contributing37%toChina’,theproductivityinChinahasbeenrapidlyraisedforsuchreasonsasdeepeningreformandopening-up,unleashinglate-developingadvantagesintechnology,achievingfasttechnologicalcatch-up,andfactorsflowfromagriculturalsectorswithlowproductivitytonon-agriculturalsectorswithhighproductivity,edStates(Bosworthetal.,2008)foundthatfrom1978to2004China’sworkforceallocationcontributedtoanaverageannualproductivitygrowthofover1%,some30%,one-fifthoftheincreasedlaborproductivityresultedfromstructuralchanges,mainlythetransferofagriculturallaborforcetonon-agriculturalindustries,%’sproductivityhasexperiencedfastimprovementduringthepastthreedecadesorso,b,ourresearchindicatesChina’sannualgrowthrateofproductivity,sincethefinancialcrisisin2008,droppedbymorethan1%comparedwiththeaveragegrowthrateduringthelastthirtyyears,,asChina’seconomyentersintothe“newnormal”,itisinevitablethatthegrowthrateofproductivitysloweddowninrecentyears,whichislargelythesamewiththegr,thegrowthrateofproductivitywillregularlyslowdownastheeconomydevelopsinto,late-developingcountriesrunoutoftechnologicaladvantages;itismoredifficultforfactorstotransferfromsectorswithlowproductivitytothosewithhighproductivity;,itiscommonthatthegrowthrateofproductivityinChinahasdeceleratedinrecentyears,whichindicatest,weuse“”,whichiscurrentlythemo,conclusionsaredrawnasfollows.(1)FortechnologicallyadvancedeconomiessuchastheUnitedStates,thegrowthrateofproductivityhasalwaysbeenstableataround1%.(2)DuringthestagewherepercapitaGDPreached11,000internationaldollars,late-developingcountrieslikeJapanandSouthKoreatransf,%,butafterw,thegrowthrateofproductivitywasnearly3%duringthehigh-speedgrowthperiodbetween1980and1990,andthenfelltonomorethan1%.(3)Chinahasthesametrendwithsuccessfullate-developingeconomies,suchasJapanandSouthKorea,%%,apartfromtheregularfactorsoftenseeninthecatch-upprocess,theproductivitygrowthratedecreasedinrecentyear,duringtheeconomicdownturn,,stronginvestmentstimulus,implementedtocopewiththefinancialcrisis,,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.①Duetolimitedspace,thereportisanabridgedintroductiontoATen-yearOutlookonChina’sEconomicGrowth(2015-2024):StrivingforHighEfficiency.捕鱼电话投注重合同守信誉企业市级明星企业,,2016Informationisthebasicelementintheproductionofgoodsandservicesaswellasinpeople’,inthenewroundofgreattransformationoftheworldpoliticalandeconomicpattern,whetheraneconomycanseizeopportunitiesbroughtbyinformationtechnologydetermineswhet,inf,suchasimages,sounds,movements,andwords,butn,anItalianscientistduringRenaissance,the“greatbook”,moderninformationtechnologyintegratessensortechnologyandcomputertechnology,andrapidlyturnsmoreandmoreinformationintostandardizeddata,whichgreatlyimprovestheefficiencyofinformationcollecting,sorting,processingandtransmission,andreducesthecostofinformationexchangeamongpeople,betweenpeopleandgoods,,policieswillbedesignedmorescientificallyandimplementedmoreprecisely;,info,’sfirstelectroniccomputer,unveiledatUniversityofPennsylvaniain1946,couldonlyperform5,000mathematicaloperationswithinasecond,whilethesupercomputerTianhe-2,builtbyChina,,(GSM),firstdeployedinthemid-1990s,allowsdataconnectionsatupto9,600bits/sintheory;whilethefourthgenerationofmobiletelecommunicationstechnology(4G),expandingsince2010,hasatheoreticalpeakdatarateofupto100Mbit/s,increasedby10,nificantlyacceleratedinformationexchangeandexpandeditsscale,,inTheInformation:AHistory,aTheory,aFlood,theAmericanwriterJamesGleickwrote,sendingmessagesbytelegraphwasluxuriousinthe19thcenturyinBritain,becausethemessage“MayIaskyoutodomeafavor”,nonetheless,peoplecanusetheInternettotransmithugeamountsofwords,images,voicemessages,,ahugeamountofdatacanbeusedtoobserve,,informationcollectingfacilities,suchassensors,canbeconvenientlyinstalledeverywherelikeinthepowergrids,vehicles,planesandhouseholdelectricalappliances,soastowidelycollectandconnectreal-timeinformation,(IDC),,recisely,,Googlehandled450milliondatamodelswiththehelpofonlinesearchterms,andtimelypredictedtheepidemicinspecificareasandstates,withthepredictions97%,informationte,,theproductionofcommoditieswillbemoredigitalandintelligent;andthecirculationofgoodsmoreconvenientandfast.“Unmannedworkshops”showedupathomeandabroad,suchasthedigitalfactoryinChengdubuiltbyGermanSiemensin2013,whicharether,informationtechnologyhaspenetratedintopeople’,ithasbecomeacommonlifestyletoreadonmobilephones,socializeontheInternetandshoponline.“WeChat”,asocialnetworkingsoftwareinChina,iswidelyusedwithmuchconvenienceandfun,’seconomictransformationandupgrading,wemustthoroughlyunderstandconnotationsofeconomictransformationandupgrading,andf’,itisimportanttotakeeffectivemeasuresatbothmacroandmicrolevels,inordertoenhancethetotalfactorproductivityandcreateapatternwh,itisnecessarytoreducepressureonresourcesandenvironment,,itisessentialtobuildamorecoordinatedeconomicstructure,promoteefficientequilibriumofsupplyanddemand,,effortsshouldbemadeinoptimizingindustrialstructure,increasetheaddedvalueofalltypesofgoodsandservices,andstrengthenChina’,itisofsignificancetoimprovecorporateoperationandmanagement,’seconomictransformationandupgradingFirst,wecanuseinformationtechnologytooptimizethemanagement,priceissetinthemarketthroughcompetition,s,however,lawedmarketrulesandsystem,variousmarketplayersbehaveinacomplicatedandchangingway;priceinformationisdistorted;llhelpimprovetheaccuracyofmacroeconomicmanagement,overcomethedefectsofthemarket,,bigdataandcloudcomputingtechnologygatherinformationaboutlogistics,capitalflowandmovementofpeople,andrapidlyanalyzeinformationaboutindustries,enterprisesandconsumersaswellastheirfuturetrend,whichcanhelppolicymakersgraspthedirectionofmacroeconomicregulationandcontrol,helpenterprisesdesignproductionandbusinessstrategies,,thestudyofChina’semploymentsituationusingthedataontheInternetandmobilephones,co-conductedbyDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncilandrelatedinstitutions,hasproducedrealsubstantialresults,,weshouldutilizeinformationtechnology,vigorouslyimplementthestrategyofthe“Internetplus”,constantlyoptimizemanagementofthenationaleconomy,,itiscrucialtostudyandformulaterulesandregulationsonbigdatamanagement,,itisofimportancetointegratedataresourcesinthehandofthegovernmentandofstate-ownedenterprises,establishaplatformwheresocialdatacanbeshared,,basedonnationalconditions,effortsshouldbeputinboostingtheabilitytoanalyzeandusebigdata,timelyandaccuratelypredictthetrendofeconomicandsocialdevelopment,improvetheeffectivenessandprecisenessofmacroeconomicregulationandcontrol,aswellascorrectnessofallkindsofpolicy-making....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.,“GoGlobal”MoveofChina’“GoGlobal”moveinChina’sfinancialsectorDuringthe12thFive-YearPlanperiod,thevolumeofoutwardforeigninvestmentbyChinesefinancialinstitutionshasrisenfrom$$,upby91%(seeTable1).RecentyearssawrapidoverseasexpansionofChina’,atotalof20Chinesebankingfinancialinstitutionshaveopenedmorethan1,200branchesoverseas,,,China’sfivestate-ownedcommercialbanks,includingIndustrialandCommercialBankofChina,AgriculturalBankofChina,BankofChina,ChinaConstructionBank,BankofCommunications(hereinafterreferredtoas“FiveBanks”),,,%,%%respectivelytotheirgroups,%,%%respectivelyhigherthanin2013(seeTable2).China’sbankings,China’,,%,inthefirsthalfof2015,therewere718syndicatedloans,,Chine,IndustrialandCommercialBankofChinasupportedChinaNationalOffshoreOilCorporationinitstakeoverofNexen,ChinaThreeGorgesCorporationinthetakeoverofEnergiasdePortugal(EDP),,grantingaloanof100millioneuros,Bankof%stakeinTnuva,’,asoftheendof2014,overseasinvestmentofChina’sinsurancefundsreached$24billion(),%ofthetotalassetsoftheinsuranceindustry,upby147%,,theyhavegraduallyexpandedbusinessinJapan,,policy-basedanddevelopmentbanksplayacrucialroleinsupportingenterprises’“GoGlobal”(hereinafterreferredtoas“CDB”)hadforeignexchangeloansashighas$320billionbytheendof2014,farmorethanthatofWorldBank,makin,CBD,isinvolvednotonlyindesigningtheloanstructureandreturnsoninterestrate,butalsoindesigningandfinancingoverseascooperationprojectsoflargestate-ownedenterpriseslikeChinaNationalPetroleumCorporationandSINOPEC,makingitanindispensable“financialconsultant”,throughexportsseller’scredit,loansforforeigncontractedprojects,governmentconcessionalloanandpreferentialexportbuyers’credit,andapackageofmutuallybeneficialcooperativeloans,hasstrengthenedcooperationwithbanks,leasing,insuranceandtrustinstitutions,supportedtheexportoflargecompletesetsofequipment,,ChinaExportCreditInsuranceCorporationhitstherecordoftheamountcoveredbymedium-andlong-termexportcreditinsuranceandbyoverseasinvestmentinsurance,whicheffectivelysupportsthe“GoGlobal”“GoGlobal”strategybyChinesefinancialinstitutionsFirstofall,enhancedstr,aBritishmagazine,in2010,84Chinesebankswereamongtheworld’stop1000,withIndustrialandCommercialBankofChinarankingthe7thincapital;in2015,117Chinesebankswereonthetop1000list,withIndustrialandCommercialBankofChina,ChinaConstructionBank,BankofChina,andAgriculturalBankofChinarankingthe1st,2nd,4th,,theenterprises’acc’sfinancialinstitutionsgo,,BankofChinahaseightbranches,providingcomprehensivefinancials,nationalstrategiesarPlanPeriod,issuedinSeptember2012,pointsouttheimportanceofimprovingthesystemsandregulationsrelatedtothe“GoGlobal”strategyoffinancialinstitutions,guidingthemtoadopteffectivestrategiesfordevelopingoverseas,tostrengthenthereserveofinternationaltalents,andt,itisvitaltoencouragefinancialinstitutionstoexpandinternationalbusinesssteadily,enhancetheiroperationabilityininternationalmarketandpromoteaforeignfinancialservicesystemconducivetotheupgradingofe’“GoGlobal”,theheadquartersoffincontrollablerisksathome,theheadquartersoffinancialinstitutionsfocusmoreattentionondomesticbusinessthanoverseascounterpart,,th,financialinstitutionsshouldnotonlypossessinternationalfinancialknowledge,butalsoadapttotheculture,legalsystemandfinancialregulatorysysteminhostcountries,,itisnotuntilrecentyearsthatChina’sfinancialinstitutionsbegantoexpl,China’sfinancialinstitutionsfailtointegrateexternalfinanci,dome,whileChinesebanksengageinasset-heavyloans,its,loans,andinternationalsettlement,withoutinnovativeproductsandservices,thusfailingtoadapttolocalfinancialenvironmentanddesignnewstrategiesbasedonlocalmarketandclients’ocompetewiththeirlocalcounterparts,theyshouldchangethefixedbusinesspatternwhentheyventureintheforeignmarket....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ByGuoJiaofeng,GaoShiji,HongTao,,2016Energysystemrevolu,energysupply,irsonJune13,2014,GeneralSecretaryXiJinpingproposedfiverequirementsonpromotingtherevolutioninenergyproductionandconsumption,oneofwhichwastoadvanceenergysystemrevolutionforfasterenergydevelopment,stressingtheimportanceofunswervinglypromotingthereform,emphasizingthecommoditynatureofenergy,buildingamarketwitheffectivecompetitionandamechanismwhereenergypriceisdeterminedbythemarket,transforminggovernmentregulationonenergy,,basedonthestrategicplansproposedbytheCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChinaandGeneralSecretaryXiJinping,itisvitaltofurtherunderstandthedetails,guidelines,basicprinciples,strategicgoals,andmajortasksofenergysystemrevolutionby2030inChina,trendoftheenergyindustryandtherequirementofcomprehensivelydeepeningreforminChina,thereisaneedtofurtherreformtheenergysystemtomeetthedemandofrevolutioninenergyproductionandconsumption,,operatingmechanism,managementandregulationsystem,andbasicsystemsoftheenergymarket,Chinashouldtakemultiplemeasu,allowingthemarkettoplayadecisiveroleinresourceallocationandthegovernmenttoplayabetterrole,willcreateabrand-newsystemcopingwithglobalcompetitionandadaptingtothenewtechnologyrevolution,consumption,,energyconsumptionrevolution,aimingatcurbingunreasonableconsumerdemand,concentratesonenergyconservation,higherefficiencyofenergydevelopmentandutilization,strictcontrolofexcessivelygrowingenergyconsumption,,energysupplyrevolutionandinternationalcooperation,withthegoalofbuildingamulti-supplysystem,focusoncontrollingtheinitiativeofenergysecurity,ensuringdomesticsupplyasthemainchannel,acceleratingthedevelopmentofcleanandlow-carbonenergy,,asthebackboneofenergyrevolution,energytechnologyrevolution,withthegoalofupgradingindustry,laysstressontechnologyinnovation,industrialinnovationandbusinessmodelinnovation,comprehensivelyadvancingenergytechnologyinnovation,,asthesystembasisofenergyrevolution,energysystemrevolution,aimingatfastgrowthoftheenergyindustry,paysattentiontoclarifyingrespectiverolesofthegovernmentandofthemarket,andthemechanismofmarketoperationandmanagement,inordertoupgradeChina’onshipbetweengovernmentandmarket,clarifyingrespectiverolesofthegovernmentandofthemarketintheenergysector,minimizingarbitrarygovernmentinterventioninthemarket,,thegovernmentshouldplayabetterrole,providingstronginstitutionalguaranteefortransformingenergystructureandbuildingamodernenergysystemwhichisclean,low-carbon,toperation,faircompetition,freechoicesbyconsumers,independentconsumption,freeflowandequalexchangeofgoodsandproductionfactors,inordertocreateanenergymarketwithefficientcompetition,,consumersshoulds,sotheycanfreelychooseefficient,cleanandlow-costenergyproducts,,theenergysectorshouldberestructured,from“dotreform”to“chainreform”.Thereformshouldbecarriedoutinallareasalongtheentireindustrychain,fromoilandgasindustrychain,powerindustrychain,,effortsshouldbemadetoeffectivelyseparatedispatchingcenter,tradingcenter,transportanddistribution,,transmission,distributionandsales,,itisvitaltochangefrom,buteconomiconeslikebidding,auction,competitivenegotiation,sothatresourcesareobtainedthroughmarketcompetitionandwecanestablishamarkettradingsystemwithdiverseplayers,,itisimportanttohaveenergypricesetbymarketratherthanbygovernment,andrebuildanenergypriceformationmechanismcoveringallcosts,includingexternalcosts,,itiscrucialtoseparateadministrationfromregulation,rebuildanenergymanagementsystem,createanenergymanagementandregulationsystemwhichishighlyefficient,transparent,fair,just,andstrong,withclearrolesandresponsibilitiesforbothmarketandgovernment,,importanceshouldbeattachedtoformulatingandimprovingbasiclaws,separatelawsandsupportingrules,establishingascientificandeffectivelawsystemincludinglegislation,judicialprocedures,lawenforcementandlaw-basedadministration,hereformandopening-up,Chinahasimplementedarangeofreformsinthemajorparticipantsofenergydevelopmentandutilization,marketaccess,price,investmentandfinancing,foreigntrade,,suchmovesasallowingthemarkettosetthecoalprice,separatingrolesofthegovernmentandofenterprises,establishingthestatusofenterprisesasthemajorplayersinthemarket,havegreatlyincreasedmarketvitalityandbroughtaboutthegoldendecade(2002-2012),reformslike,reorganizingChina’sthreemajoroilandgascompaniesin1998,graduallyopeningmarketaccessandpricereform,haveimprovedthesystemoftheindustry,ensuringChinaamongtheworld’,reforms,suchastheestablishmentoftwogridcompanies,fivepowergenerationgroupcorporationsandStateElectricityRegulatoryCommissionin2002,haveeliminatedsystembarriersofexclusivecontrolofpower,preliminarilyimprovedthesystemofmandatoryplans,separatedtherolesofthegovernmentandofenterprisesaswellasrolesofpowergenerationplantsandofgrids,edthegrowthoftheenergyindustry....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.,Chinahasmadesignificantprogresstowardsfinancialsectorderegulationvialiberalizingbanklendingrates,expandingtheQFIIquota,increasingtheflexibilityoftheexchangerate,,includingbanklendingratesandexchangerates,arenowclosermarketequilibriums,andmarketm,Chinatructuralimbalancesduetooverregulations,Chinaneedsto:1)removecontrolsondepositrates;2)furtherincreasetheRMBsexchangerateflexibility;3)furtheropenupitscapitalaccount;and4)liberalizemarketaccesstothefinancialindustrybyremovingexcessiveandhavebeenwrittenintothethirdplenums"Decision",themostchallengingquestionishowtodesignthespecificreformprogramstbeonhighalertincludethefollowing,manyofwhichreflectlegacyissuesoftheoldsystem:,Chinaslocalgovernmentdebthasrisenquicklyinrecentyearstoabout32%,however,isthematuritymismatchbetweenlocalgovernmentliabilities(mostlyintheformofloansandtrustloans),thematurityofatypicalbankloanortrustloanis2-3years,whiletheprojectcashflowswillonlhtening,changeinprudentialregulationsonbanksandtrustcompanies,aswellasdeteriorationininvestorsentimentforwealthmanagementproducts(WMPs).InWesterncountries,theaveragematurityoflocalgovernmentdebtis7-10years,whichismuchclo,therewerenofailuresofbanksandtrustcompanies,andtherewereveryfewdefaultsofhighlyrisky(withriskssimilartojunkbondsinwesterncountries),trustcompaniesandWMPsareexceptionallystrong,butbecausemostofthesepoliticalsystemthatpenalieesofallbanks,trustcompaniesandWMPsleadtoincorrectpricingofcreditproductsissuedbysomeveryriskyborrowers,,,htsteptowardscorrectingthemispricing,,Chinasinterbankratesbecameveryvol,ahighvolatilityofinterestratestendstoconfusefinancialmarketparticipantsandcompaniesastowhatthemonetarypolicyintentionis,,asuddenspikeininterbankratescouldexacerbatethedurationriskf:theyhavedotowiththelackofcapacityinforecastingliquidity,lackofinter-governmentalcollaboration,theloan-to-depositratio,imprudentliquiditymanagementbybanks,shadowbankingactivities,aswellast,cross-bordercapitalflowsremainmanageableasformalcontrolsonQFIIandQDIIquotasremain,,assoonasthecapitalaccountisopen(,theQFIIandQDIIsystemsareabolished),large-scalecapitalinflowsand/oroutflowscouldleadtoexcessivevolatilityoftheexchangerate,destabilizethefinancialsystems,anddamagetherealeco"managedfloatingexchangerateregime",thevolatilityoftheRMB//7thatofMalaysianRinggit,1/13thatofKoreanwon,and1/,massiveinflowscouldresultifChinasbondmarketisopenedtoglobalinvestorsgiventhe2-3%interestratedifferentialbetweenChina)needtomovetowardsamoreliberalizationfinancialsystemsothattoimproveefficiency,and2)theneedtocontainanddefusetheabovementionedfinancialrisks,Chinats,alongwiththeplanedreformssuchasdepositratederegulationandcapitalaccountliberalization:,webelievethatakeyriskfacingthefinancialsystemistheexcessiverelianceoflocalgket,whichwillgraduallyreplaceloansandtrustloans,localgovernmentbondswithlongermaturitiesshouldaccountformorethan50%ofthefinancingsourcesforlocalgovernmentcapex(itisonly10%inChina).Tostartthereformprogram,Chinashouldmodifyitsbudgetlawtoallowindependentissuanceoflocalgovernmentbonds,establishacrediblecreditratingsystemforlocalgovernmentbonds,requirelocalgovernmentstopublishtheirbalancesheetsandmedium-termfinancialprojections,andestablishalegalframeworktoregulatetheapprovalprocedurebylocalpeople"manageddefaults".InaneconomyasbigasChina,afewfailuresofsmallbanksandafewdozendefaultsbyjunkbonds(orWMPs)peryearshouldbenormaland,indeed,,webelievethatregulatorsshouldpermitafewmoredefaultsofnon-standardWMPsintheremainderofthisyear,withsomemodestincreasesinthehaircut(fromthe7%haircutfortheCCTproduct)to,,10-20%.Theseeventsof"manageddefaults"maypotentiallypushupthefundingcostsby100-200bpsforhighlyriskyborrowers,buttheyarenecessaryforcontainingtheexcessiveborrowingviathetrustsector–bypricingoutsomeworstborrowers--andreducingsystemicrisks.20108月通过ISO9001:2000国际质量管理。

    我公司以ByChenDaofu,ResearchInstituteofFinanceofDRCResearchReport,(Total4571),peoplehavenoticedthefollowingincidentsthatRMBdepreciatedagainstUSdollar,variousdomesticcapitalpricesfellquickly,creditdefaultriskescalated,nomicandfinancialperformance,,,theconfusionofcapitalmarketshowsthatthemarketsfunctioninoptimizationofresourcesallocationunderthecurrentenvironmenthasbeengreatlyrestrained,ourcesmisallocationOntheonehand,moreandmoreinstitutions,linksandchainsrangingfromcapitalsourcestocapitalusersareinvolved,makingfundcirculationbecomeincrea,agrowingamountofcapitalinChinaispooled,converte,ahostofadministrativecontrolandsupervisionmeasuresarestillinplace,,financialinstitutionshaveescapedvariousfinancialcontrols(whichactuallyreflectsChinasdeepeningliberalizationininformalfinancialsystem)andinputtedcapitalintotheareasdiscourage,moreandmorefinancialinstitutionsandquasi-financialinstitutionsneedtobeincorporatedintothecapitalchain,,bondsandstockswitharelativelyshortchaininthetotalsocialfinancing,itwasabove80%before2009,butdroppedtoover70%in2010-2012andfurtherdroppedtoaround60%tedloansandtrustloans(Figure1).、捕鱼电话投注用户至上新葡京集团平台棋牌ByZhangChenghui,,2015SincetheThirdPlenarySessionofthe18thCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChina,manyreformmeasureshavebeenimplementedinChina’sfinancialsectorsuchasthemarketizationofinterestrate,wideropening-up,andstreamliningadministrationanddelegatingmorepowertolower-levelgovernmentsviaShanghaiFreeTradeZone(China),theto-be-adoptedIPOregistrationsystem,issuingthereformplanforpolicy-basedbanks,moreeffortsi,,notmuchsignificanteffecthasshown,andtheimprovementoffinancialser’’smanagementoverfinancialsectorThisquestionisthecoreofallinstitutionalproblems,theessenceofwhichishowtoadjusttherelationshipbetweengovernmentandfinancialmarket,and,asoneplayerinthefinancialmarket,governmentcannotd,’,throughitscontroloverfinancialinstitutionsandfinancialmarket(equity-holdingornon-equity-holding),governmentexercisesitsimpactontheallocationandreallocationoffinancialresourcesso,throughitsimpactonfinancialtransactions(suchasimplicitguaranteesforfinancialgoodsandassistancetoavoidbusinessfailureforfinancialinstitutions),governmentmaintainsfinancialeveneconomicandsocialstability,reducesfiscalexpenditureonmitigatingrisks,espe,throughdeepinvolvementinfinancialactivities,administr,centralandlocalgovernmentsareusuallyunwillin“letthemarketplayadecisiveroleinresourceallocationandletthegovernmentplayitsduerole”.Government’sinterventioontrol,governmentcontinuestoholdthemajorityofthesharesinfinancialinstitutionsanddirectlyappointhigh-levelmanagement;Throughadministrativepower,governmentordersfinancialinstitutionsdevotetheirsupportmainlytogovernmentprojects.(’sinterventionevenintensifieswheneconomicgrowthslowsdown,andlocalgovernmentshavegrowingpressuretomaintaineconomicgrowth.)Administrativedepartmentsoffinancialsectordirectlyestablishandregulatefinancialmarket,evensettingup“onespecializedmarketforoneproduct”.,governmentofficialsaremorewillingtointervenedirectlyinfinancialinstitutionswithadministrativecontrolsbecauseofthesimplicity,directnessandquickeffectratherthanindirectlyguideandaffectresourceallocationthroughmarketmechanism,,somefinancialadministrativedepartmentsdon’,theyeventendtostrs,financialreformhasencounteredso“makingbreakthroughsfromoutside”.Forexample,effortsaremadetopromotetheestablishmentofprivatebanks,tobemoretoleranttowardsthedevelopmentofInternetfinance,andtovigorouslydevelopallsortsoffinancialinstitutionsincludingsmallloancompanies,financingguaranteecompanies,financialleasingcompanies,“makingbreakthroughsfromoutside”onboostingthedevelopmentofrealeconomy,,theemerginginstituti,evenif100privatebanksaresetup,eachwithacapitalof2billionyuan,theirtotalassetsarenomorethan2to3trillionyuan,whilethetotalassetsofthefinancialinstitutio,itiscompetitivenessandriskcontrolabilityofthemajorfinancinginstitutionsthatplayakeyroleindeterminingserviceefficiencyandriskdegreeofChina’,basedontheexperienceofTaiwan,rapidlyremovingthethresholdofmarketaccesstoprivatebanksleadstoalargenumberofbanks,excessivecompetition,,financialregulatoryauthoritiesinTaiwanwereund,financialregulatorypressureoflocalgovernment,,theinconsistencyofmarketrulesandregulatoryef,majorfinancialinstitutionshavetheproblemsofnon-standardizedcorporategovernance,lackofheadquarterscontrolandriskcontrolability,,thereisawidespreadphenomenonth,itisestimatedthatgovernmenthasdirectorindirectshareholdingofabout60%-70%,alongwithacomplexandmulti-layerprinciple-agentsystemofstate-ownedassets,resultinthedifficultyfortheprinciplestoexerciseeffectiveregulationandsupervisionoveragents,lossininformationtransmissionacrosslayers,,,directorsandsupervisorsareusuallyselectedwi-,theboardsevenb,,thechairmanisnotonlythehighestrepresentativeofstockholders’interestsinthecompany,rsofdecision-makingpowerortheadministrativeauthoritytoappointandremovemanagers,inordertoavoidbeingremovedfrompracticalcontrol,“chairmanfirst,presidentsecond”,which,toalargeextent,,excessivenon-marketfactorsexercisestrongimpactontheselectionofcompany’,governmentusuallyappointsthetopmanagementoftheheadquartersoffinancialinstitutions.(InsomefinancialinstitutionscontrolledbyprivatecapitalliketheRuralCreditUnion,itsmanagementattheprovinciallevelisalsoappointedbythegovernment.)Inmostcases,,theconceptof“topmanagement”paniesareappointedwiththeapprovalofrelevantdepartmentsortheiroffices,whichgreatlyconstraiive-orientedbasedonbusinessactivitiesandmarketevaluation,butisincreasinglyinfluencedbyandsubjecttogovernmentadministration.ByLaiYouwei,LiGuangqianShiGuang,ResearchTeamon"DevelopmentCharacteristics,ProblemsandCountermeasuresofChinasE-commerceServiceIndustry",GeneralOfficeofDRCResearchReport,(Total4580)I.FastGrowingTransactionVolumeofChinasE-commerceOverrecentyears,thetransactionvolumeofChinase-commercesawcontinuousgrowth,ologyofChina,thetransactionvolumeofChinase-commercereachedapproximatelyRMB10trillionyuanin2013,up25%,thesizeofChinaanewsourceforChina,withtheincreasingacceptanceofe-commerceandonlineshoppingbycorporateusersandconsumers,traditionalcompaniesaremarchingintothee-commerceindustrywithagrowingnumberofonlinesalesactivities,,%ofChinasonlineconsumptionrepresentedaswitchfromoffline,whiletheremaining39%,ChinasonlineshoppinggeneratedanaddedconsumptionvolumeworthRMB720billionyuanin2013,aclearmanifestatio,onlineshoppersinChinacontinuetogrowrapidly,,,thatnumberhadrisento302million,%,Chinase-commerceindustryisactivelyinvolvedinpursuingtechnologicalinnovationaswellasinnovationinbusinessmodel,,smobilee-commercemarketwillexceedRMB300billionyuan,withanaverageyearlygrowthof70%.Fourth,thedevelopmentenvironmentforChina,Chinase-commercehasenjoyedabetterdevelopmentenvironmentwiththeperfectionofrelevantlawsandregulationsaswellastheimprovedinfrastructureandtechnicalstandards,andwillundoubtedlyembraceanevenbrighterfuturewiththeestablishmentofasoundstatesupervisionsystem,strongerpolicysupport,furtherimprovedinfrastructure,edividedintothreetypes,namely,transactionalservices,supportingservices,AlibabaGroup,,,,,,,,,,,logisticsanddelivery,anddataoperation,,e-commerceoperationandonlinemodeling,,e-commerceservicesareexpandingthemselves,,Chinase-commerceserviceprovidershaveenormouspotentialsintodaysinformation-based,market-oriented,highlyconnected,,,ChinahasseenfasterintegrationoftheBusinesstoBusiness(B2B)modelandtheBusinesstoCustomer(B2C)modelaswellasth(C2C)commercestilldominatestheonlineretailmarket,occupyingover70%ofmarketshares,its,Chinase-commercetransaction,,andotherlarge-scalecomprehensivee-commercecom,,,,andotherB2Ccompaniesaretransformingfromstorestoplatformsbyallowingtcentyears.(1)slargestonlineandmobilee-commercecompany,AlibabaGroupoperatese-co,AlibabaGroupprovidesthreetypesofplatformservices,namely,B2B,C2C,,anaffiliateofAlibabaGroupandoneofChinasmostpopularC2Cplatform,hadapproximately500mil,,,eretailbusinesscommunitythatcoversC2C,groupbuying,distribution,auction,,sleadingB2Conlineshoppingwebsite,,,AlibabaGroup,,,,,,China,rsforonlinemarketing,transactioncommissions,srevenueforthefiscalyear2010,2011,2012,,,,snetlossforfiscalyear2010wasRMB503millionyuanandthenetprofitforthefiscalyear2011,2012,,,(2),,communicationsproducts,consumerelectronics,,italsoprovidesaseriesofvalue-addservicesforthethird-partyvendorssuchasonlinesalesplatformsandlogistics,,,,itsplatformturnoverexceededRMB100billionyuan.(3)Thethird-partye-commerceplatformsinGuangdongProvince,ZhejiangProvince,partye-commerceplatformsinGuangdongProvince,ZhejiangProvince,FujianProvinceandotherlocalareas,,e-commerceplatformswithanannualturnoverofoverRMB10billionyuan,,mainlycomefromthesteelindustry,thepetrochemicalindustry,thegrainindustry,andtheelectronicsindustry,,anumberofprofessionale-commerceplatformsareplayingan,,,,,,hoe-makingclusterinJinjiangCityandPutianCityandtheclothingandtextileclusterinQuanzhouCity....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.Source:(MSEs)facedamoresternexportsituationthanlargeandsmall-sizedenterprises(LSEsandSSEs).Accordingtothepresentsurveyresults,betweenJanuaryandMaythisyear,%ofMSEssawanexportincrease,;%ofMSEssufferedanexportdecline,ssituation,thenumberofvarioustypesofenterprisesthatsufferedanexportdeclinehadincreased,andMSEsevensufferedasharperdecline,,,,%,lowerthanthatofotherindustriessurveyed;%,,rtwassignificantlyhigherthanlastyearssurveyresults,insuchindustriesasfood,textilesgarments,materialsandmachinerythe,wherethenumberofenterprisesreportinganexportincreasewas,,,thenumberofenterpriseswithanincreasedexporttoEuropeandrelevantregionswasabove50%,higherthantheexporttoothermajormarkets;thenumberofenterprises%%,ssurveyresults,thenumberofenterpriseswithadecreasedexporttovariousregionshadincreasedsignificantly,butthenumberofenterpriseswithanincreasedexporttoEurope,theUS,HongKong,Macau,,thenumberofenterpriseswitha,thos,thenumberofenterprisesreportinganexportgrowthwasabove50%inShanxi,HunanandSichuan,higherthanthatinBeijing,Guangdong,Fujianintheeasternregion;thenumberofenterpriseswithadecreasedexportinShanxi,Chongqing,HunanandSichussurveyresults,thepresentsurveyrevealsthatthenumberofenterpriseswithadecreasedexporthadrisenconsiderablyinBeijingandGuangdong,,thenumberofenterprisesrecordinganincreasedexportwasslightlyhigherinGuangdong,,materialsandmachineryindustrieswe%oftherespondentsreportedanupwardtrendofexportcostbetweenJanuaryandMaythisyear,ssurveyresults;theproportionofrespondentswithbasicallyunchangedordecreased(slightlydecreasedandsignificantlydecreased),thepressureofrisingcostsustainedbyexportenterpriseshadbeeneasedtosomeextent.、DVOR,,theThirdPlenarySessionofthe18thCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChinadecidedtoinitiatetheselectivetwo-childpolicy(allowingcouplestohaveasecondchildifeitherhusbandorwifeistheonlychildinhisorherfamily),,asfarastheactualeffectofthepolicyisconcerned,therearenotmanyapplicationsforasecondchildpermit,,therear,,,33,000womenofchildbearingageinYangzhouCityareeligibletohaveasecondchild,butbytheendofJune2015,only3,327couples,withnosiblingsoneitherhusband’sorwife’sside,%,andtherateofRudongCounty(underthejurisdictionofNantong)islessthan10%.Asfarasthedevelopmenttrendisconcerned,,,thenumberofapplicationswasabout150,000countrywide;bytheendoflastyear,thefigurestayedaround80,000to90,,andsubmittedanex-postapplicationforthepermit;,thenumberofapplicationsinNantongwas471inApril2014,andinJulyitfellto299;thefigureinShenzhenwas2647inMay2014,;whilefromJanuarytotheendofJunein2015,thefigurewas1026,etweenchildbearingdesire,,31womenwereeligibletohaveasecondchild,ningCommissionandtheAcademyofSocialSciencesfrom2006to2010showedthat,inthe2007baselinesurvey,amongthoseruralwomenwhohadachildalready,andwereeligibletohaveasecondchild,only6%yhaveasecondchild,only44%ld,2%,about7%,fo“thosewhodidn’thaveplanstohaveasecondchildalmostallkepttheirpromises;butthosewhodidhaveplanshavenotfullyimplementedthem”.Thesmall-samplesur,thosewhoareeligibleandhaveastrongdesiretohaveasecondchildwon’,therearesomeotherf,,somewomenwouldapplyforthepermittohaveasecondchild,,somescholars,includingthosewhogavebirthtoasecondchildfirst,,,’sfamilypla,,’personalrightsandtheintroductionofinformedchoicesinconductingfamilyplanningwork,veryfewv,theeffectoffamilyplanningonhdlytakenmeasurestodealwithviolationsofconnectingfamilyplanningwithschoolattendingandhouseholdregistrationsoastoensurethosechildrenbornintothefa,,,socialmaitenancefeeiscollectedinonlytwoways:directcollection,’thavethepoweroflawenforcement,ifthosewhoarechargeddonotcomply,,wefoundmanylocalfamilyplanningauthoritiescomplainedthatcourtproceedingscostsomuchtimeandmoneythattheydidn’,thecourtcan,socialmaint,inourinterviews,someofficialssaidthat,toalargeextent,“thefamilyplanningpolicycouldonlyconstrainthosewhowerepaidbypublicfinance(civilservants,andthosewhoworkinpublicinstitutionsandstate-ownedenterprises,etc.),whilenon-publicjobholderswhohadastrongdesiretohavemorechildrenbasicallyalldid”.Therefore,therelaxationoffamilyplanningpolicydoesn’treallyresultinastrongreboundofbirthsasexpected.vironmentalsustainability,butpolitical,social,,theInternationalCommissionontheMeasurementofEconomicPerformanceandSocialProgressarguedthatoneofthereasonsthatGDPwasnotingeneralagoodmeasurewasthatGDPmetricsdidnotincludeassessmentsofsustainability:GDPcouldappeartobebothstrongandgrowing,,Iwanttofocusononeaspectofsustainability:the"social"ronmentalrisks,(andIwillarguerelated)risks:highlevelsofinequality,andespeciallyinequalityofopportunity,andalackoftrustinestablishedinstitutions,,—includingimplicationsforsocialandpoliticalstability—tappreciatetheimportanceoftrustinmakingamoderneconomyfunction;butintheabsenceoftrust,onepartywillcheatanother;eachpartywillgotogreatlengthstoinsurethatitwontorcantbecheated,orthatifitischeated,,wherevaluablesocietalresourcesaredevotedtodisputeresolution,ratherthantowealthcreation—,alargebodyofeconomicliteraturehasdevelopedfocusingontheimportanceoftrustandasenseoffairnessinsociety,,Ifirstdiscussinequality,then"trust"beforeturningtothepoliciesthatcanhelpChinamanagebothrisks.Ⅰ.InequalityOneofthegreatachievementsofChinaduringthepastthirdofacenturyhasbeenthereductioninp,,,ChinasGinicoefficient,astandardmeasureofinequality,rivalsthatoftheUS—,,thereisoftenamarkedincreaseininequality,assomepartsoftheeconomytake-offbeforeothers,inthepasthalfcentury,manydevelopingcountriesshowednotonlythatgrowthinearlystagesneednotbeaccompaniedbygreaterinequality,(Thisisevenmoresoifweusealternative,andarguablybetter,measuresofeconomicperformance,suchastheincomeofthemedianhousehold.)Somehavesimilarlyattemptedtojustifythehighlevelofinequalitybyassertingthatgrowinginequalityisaglobalphenomenon,,bothadvancedindustrialeconomiesandemergingeconomies,whichhavebuckedthetrend;inwhichinequalityisnotincreasing;:itispoliticsandpolicieswhichhaveshapedthelawsofeconomics,insomecasestoproducesocietieswithhighlevelsofequalityandequalityofopportunityandabroadsenseoffairness;andinothercases,,inforginga"marketeconomywithsocialistcharacteristics"ensurethatitspoliciesareoftheformerkind,"ensuringthatthemarkethasadecisiveroleinallocatingresources..."Butatthesametime,ittalkedabout"guaranteeingandimprovingthepeopleslivelihood...andstimulatingsocialfairnessandjustice,"guaranteeingthat"societyisbothfullofvitality,aswellasharmoniousandorderly."Marketeconomiesareoftenassociatedwithhighlevelsofinequalityandinequalityofopportunity,andinrecentdecadestheproblemsposedbytheseinequitieshavebecomemarkedlyworse,somuchsothatwhileGDP(asconventionallymeasured)hasbeengoingupinmostWesterncountries,(Wenote,however,thattheremaybelongperiodsforwhi,adjustedforinflation,GDPpercapitainFrance,Greece,Italy,Spain,andUKareallbelowthelevelattainedbeforethecrisis,morethanahalfdecadeago,insomecases,suchasGreece,,combinedwithreductionsinincome,,inthis,animportantlesson,alreadynoted:socialandeconomicrisksareintertwined.)Ifthisisthecase,doesntthemovetowardsmakingthemarketmoredecisivenecessarilyleadtogreatersocialrisksTheanswerisno,andtheReportofthe:"thecoreissuesaredealingwiththerelationshipbetweenthegovernmentandthemarket"Marketforces,evenwhentheyworkwellinthemannerthattheyaresupposedto,donotnecessarilyleadtoadistributionofincomeandwealththatisinanywayconsonantwithsocialharmony;quitethecontrary—asIhavenoted,theyoftencanle,health,,,andthesegenera,(saythemedian,whethermeasuredmorenarrowlybyincome,orevenmoreso,whenmeasuredmorebroadly,sHumanDevelopmentIndex,HDI,whichtakesintoaccountnotonlyincome,buthealthandeducation)performfarbetterthan,say,:thehigherlevelsofopportunityandthebettersystemsofsocialprotection(includingstrongersafetynets)arepartofthereasonforthesecountriesChinesecharacteristics,;therightoneswouldmitigatethemandensurethattheobjectivessetforthinthe3rdPlenumwouldbeachieved.Note::Authorssion,,housingconditionsforurbanresidentswillbeconsiderablyimproved,,andpercapitahousingflooragewillexceed34squaremeters(%andaresidenturbanpopulationof920million).Meanwhile,therewillbeabout340millionhousingunits,,,rofworking-agepopulationinChina,itspossibletocalculatethedistributionofhousingdemandalongthetimelineinthenextdecade,,,,easunderconstructioninthepastyears,,thepeakofnewhousingstartsisexpectedtoarrivebefore2015,whereastha,overallgrowthrateofhousinginvestmentwillbenotablyslowerthanbefore(Table1).Inthelasttwoyearsofthe12thFive-YearPlanperiod,theactualgrowthrateofurbanhousinginvestmentcalculatedbasedonconstructionareawilllikelyfallbelow10%,whileduringthe13thFive-YearPlanperiodandafter2020,theactualgrowthrateisverylikelytobelowerthan5%.,thenationalsupplyofurbanhousinghasmaintainedarapidgrowthrateingeneral,andthefloorspaceofcommercialhousingforsalehasrisensignificantly,butthereisstillanobvioussupply-,%,forinstance,afterthesharpreboundofhousingsalesin2012,thefloorspaceofsoldcommercialhousinggrewatarelativelysteadypacein2013,whilethefloorspaceofcommercialhousingfo,thehousingpricecurveinfirst-tiercitiesand,housingpriceinlargefirst-tiercitieshasmaintai,Shanghai,GuangzhouandShenzhen,forexample,%,%,%%respectively(basedon100-citypriceindex).Ontheotherhand,month-on-monthgrowthrateofhousingpriceinsecond-tiercitieshasremainedrelativelystable,,themonth-on-monthcurveofhousingpriceindiffer:(1)percapitahousingfloorageinthispaperissmallerthanthenumberpublishedbytheNationalBureauofStatistics(NBS)(forspecificreason,pleaserefertothe"MediumandLong-termGrowth"researchgroupoftheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil,2013);(2)eaofhouseswithlimitedpropertyrightsisincorporated,thecurrent%NationalPopulationSampleSurvey2005,throughannualdepreciation....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.。

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